major updates to Chinese KEY

key_softwareIf you are using one or more programs from the Chinese Key family of software, you should definitely update if you haven’t in the past few months, as some significant improvements have been made.

One of the things I particularly like about Key is that it has the rare virtue of following proper Pinyin orthography. So if you’re not familiar with it, you might want to give it or one of its sibling programs a 30-day test drive.

No, I get no kickbacks from the company; I just admire the software.

common newbie errors in Pinyin: YAN

Today’s post is something for those who are relatively new to Pinyin and Mandarin. It covers something I’ve received more than one query about.

Hanyu Pinyin is quite simple. But it still has a few points — beyond the usual caveats about x, q, c, and zh — that sometimes trip up introductory students of Mandarin. One of the most common of these is the syllable yan.

Lots of Mandarin learners tend to pronounce this as if it were yang — but with an n on the end instead of an ng. But it’s properly pronounced much like the English pronunciation of the name of the Japanese currency: yen. Thus, yen for yan is a common misspelling.

Yet yan is a perfectly regular spelling within the Pinyin system. What’s more: Pinyin doesn’t have anything spelled yen.

Remember that when an i comes at the beginning of a syllable, it is written y (or yi, if there is no vowel immediately following). Thus,

yan = ian

I stress this because relatively few people get any of the following related syllables wrong:

  • bian (as in former Taiwan president Chen Shui-bian)
  • pian (as in pianyi / cheap)
  • mian (as in chaomian / fried noodles)
  • dian (as in dianhua / telephone)
  • tian (as in tianqi / weather)
  • nian (as in nian / year)
  • lian (as in buyao lian / shameless)
  • jian (as in zaijian / good-bye)
  • qian (as in qian / money)
  • xian (as in xiansheng / mister)

Now try reading these:

  • yanjing / eye
  • yanjing / glasses
  • chouyan / smoke (verb)
  • yuyan / language
  • yanse / color
  • keyan / scientific research
  • It’s easy!

    further reading:
    combinations of initials and finals in Hanyu Pinyin/span

    onomatopoeia in Mandarin and how to write it in Hanyu Pinyin

    cover of Chinese Romanization: Pronunciation and OrthographyToday’s selection from Yin Binyong’s Chinese Romanization: Pronunciation and Orthography is onomatopoeic words (340 KB PDF).

    Yin Binyong makes a distinction between onomatopoeic words that originate in Literary Sinitic (which thus generally have fixed forms in Chinese characters) and those from Modern Mandarin. The former can be written with tone marks, the latter aren’t.

    In practice that distinction may well be more trouble than it’s worth. But I was happy to learn a new expression from his examples: sh?sh?ngl?ngl?ng (the sound of reading aloud), which YBY writes as two words and the ABC Chinese-English Comprehensive Dictionary writes solid.

    OK, for some niceties and examples:

    Some of these words can be stretched out for auditory effect; to express this lengthening in writing, a dash is added after the syllable:

    • Du — , qìdi xi?ng le. (Toot went the steam whistle.)
    • Dà g?ngj?, o — o — tí. (The rooster crowed cock-a-doodle-do.)

    Reduplication is of course quite common in Mandarin.

    • huahua (sound of water or rain)
    • huhu (sound of wind)
    • wawa (sound of calling or crying)
    • dongdong (sound of beating drums).
    • wangwang (sound of a dog barking)
    • miaomiao (sound of a cat meowing)
    • jiji (sound of insects buzzing or chirping)
    • zizi (sound of a mouse squeaking)
    • gugu (sound of a pigeon cooing)
    • wengweng (sound of bees or flies buzzing)
    • gaga (sound of a duck quacking)
    • haha (sound of laughter)
    • heihei (sound of bitter or sardonic laughter)
    • xixi (sound of giggling)
    • gege (sound of guffawing)

    All of those could also be written tripled instead of doubled, e.g., wangwangwang, miaomiaomiao, hahaha.

    Yin provides some orthographic rules based on the patterns of the onomatopoeic words. The sound of a ticking clock, for example, could take various forms, such as

    • dida
    • dida dida
    • didi-dada

    Note spacing, hyphens, and lack thereof. See the PDF for all the details.

    Still, don’t sweat the stylistic niceties of these too much. It’s onomatopoeia, so have fun!

    further reading:

    mood particles in Mandarin — and how to write them in Hanyu Pinyin

    cover of Chinese Romanization: Pronunciation and OrthographyToday’s post is on the “mood particles” of Mandarin (426 KB PDF), e.g., a, ba, la, ma, ne.

    Mood-indicating particles are used to add various moods, spirits and tones to an utterance. “Mood” includes such diverse qualities as interrogation, request, command, emphasis, and exclamation. Some Chinese grammatologists classify mood particles as an independent part of speech, calling them “mood words.” Two distinctive features of mood particles are their position, typically at the end of a sentence or phrase, and their tone — they are usually read in the neutral tone. (In Hanyu Pinyin, consequently, they are never marked with tones.) The intonation of a sentence, which in Putonghua usually rests largely on the final syllable of an utterance, is in the case of a particle-final sentence transferred to the penultimate syllable. Mood particles are always written separately, from other components of a sentence.

    Again: They’re always written separately and never with tone marks. So the orthography of these is easy.

    OK, well, maybe the orthography is a little trickier than that. First, the examples give “bàle” (??/??), which sure looks to me like it has a tone mark. And then there’s the case of “a” (?), which is an extremely common particle “used to express emotion, affirmation, interrogation, and other moods.”

    In speech, its pronunciation is partially determined by the final of the syllable preceding it. After -a, -e, -i, -o, or -ü, a ? is pronounced “ya” ?; after -u, “wa” ?; and after -n, “na” ?. These different pronunciations are conventionally represented by the different characters seen here; in Hanyu Pinyin, however, a single “a” is used to represent them all.

    That certainly complicates matters if you’re trying to get a Chinese-characters-to-Pinyin converter to work properly. Note that when Yin Binyong is writing above about finals, he’s referring to sounds, not spellings. Thus, what’s written “h?o a” is pronounced “h?o wa,” not “h?o ya” (and not “h?o a” either, of course). If you’re still wondering about this, say –ao very slowly to notice the -u final. (Y.R. Chao and George Kennedy had good reasons for choosing -au in their romanization systems rather for what is -ao in Hanyu Pinyin.) Also, the distinction between a/ya isn’t absolute.

    But the practice of just using “a” makes life easy if you’re writing something in Pinyin, which I’m grateful for, given that particles are, for people trying to learn how to employ them, zh?n de h?o máfan a! So beginning and intermediate students of Mandarin should definitely read this selection.

    le redux

    cover of Chinese Romanization: Pronunciation and OrthographyNo, I’m not switching to French. I just wanted to get back to the matter of the particle le (?), which was discussed previously in How to write verbs in Hanyu Pinyin. Le is so frequently used that it deserves its own section.

    Because today’s selection on this from Chinese Romanization: Pronunciation and Orthography is just a few pages long, for this post I typed out all of it — other than most Chinese characters, which can be seen in the PDF of the original: Tense-Marking Particles (le/?) (240 KB PDF).


    9.2. Tense-Marking Particles

    Tense-marking particles have already been discussed in some detail in Chapter 5, Verbs. It was noted there that the tense markers zhe (indicating an action in progress) and guo (indicating a past experience) are always written as a single unit with the verb they follow. The particle le ? (indicating a completed action) is sometimes, but not always, written as a single unit with its verb. This is because le, unlike zhe and guo, may be separated from its verb by other elements; and also because le itself can act as a mood particle as well as a tense particle. (For details on le as a mood particle, see Section 3 of chapter 9.)

    This section is devoted to a discussion of orthography specifically as it relates to the tense particle le. Three rules are laid out to help the student master the written forms of this particle.

    1. When le occurs in the middle of a sentence or phrase, and immediately follows a verb or verb construction written as a single unit, le is written together with that verb or verb construction:
      • kànle y? ch?ng diàny?ng (saw a movie)
      • t?olùnle x?du? wèntí (discussed many issues)
      • ch?wánle pínggu? he xi?ngji?o (finished off the apples and bananas)
      • d?s?le s?n zh? tùzi (shot three rabbits)
    2. When le occurs in the middle of a sentence or phrase, and follows a verb phrase written as two or more units, then le is written separately:
      • z?u jìnlai le y? wèi ji?ngj?n (a general came in)
      • sh?ushi h?o le zìj? de xíngli (gathered up one’s luggage)
      • d?s?o g?njìng le zhè ji?n sh?fáng (cleaned up the study)
      • yánji? bìng ji?jué le huánjìng w?r?n de wèntí (researched and solved the problem of environmental pollution)
        • Note that le here applies to both verbs, so that the meaning is equivalent to yánji?le bìng ji?juéle.
    3. When le occurs at the end of a phrase or sentence (that is, immediately before any form of punctuation), it is written separately from other elements:
      • Xiàti?n lái le. (Summer is here.)
      • W?men fàngle jià le. (Our vacation has begun.)
      • K?lián de xi?oyáng, bèi láng g?i ch?diào le. (The poor little lamb was eaten up by the wolf.)
      • Ti?n kuài liàng le, w?men g?i dòngsh?n le. (It’s almost dawn; we should get moving.)
      • H?o le, h?o le, nímen zài bùyào zh?nglùn le. (All right, stop arguing, all of you.)
      • N? bù shì ch?guo fàn le ma? (Haven’t you eaten already?)
        • Note that le is here treated as if it occupied the sentence-final position, despite the presence of another particle (ma) following it.


    OK, it’s me again. In closing I want to draw attention to that final note, because it’s important: If le is followed by ma, le is still treated as if it came at the end of the sentence and thus is written separately from its verb.

    de de de — d di de

    cover of Chinese Romanization: Pronunciation and OrthographyWhat’s the most commonly used morpheme in Mandarin? It isn’t the word for is (shì/?). And it’s not the one for not (/?). And the number one (y?/?) is only number two — in frequency, that is. (Even some of that is that Hanzi frequency counts include ? used as a dash.) Nope, it’s that little grammatical particle de (?).

    Today’s selection from Chinese Romanization: Pronunciation and Orthography is all about de (800 KB PDF).

    So, whaddaya do with de in Pinyin? Simple: It’s almost always written separately from the words around it.

    • m?ma de ài (mother’s love)
    • zhàopiàn de bèimiàn (back of a photograph)
    • lìsh? de j?ngyàn (the experience of history)
    • dàmén wài de shísh?zi (the stone lions outside the gate)
    • n? de y?s?n (your umbrella)
    • zhèyàng de rén (people of that sort)
    • t? zìj? de cuòwu (his own mistake)
    • jìlái de xìn (the letter that was sent)
    • ch? chóngzi de zhíwù (insectivorous plants)
    • Ch? de, chu?n de, yòng de, yàngyàng d?u y?u. (They have all kinds of food, clothing, and other items of use.)
    • h?o de bànf? (a good solution)
    • w? x?hu?n de xiézi (the shoes I like)

    So, yeah, that means if you want to write down a common Mandarin obscenity, it’s t?m? de (???), not t?m?de — though I wouldn’t be surprised if that becomes treated as one word over time.

    There are just a few exceptions. This particular de is written together with the component it follows only in the following cases:

    • y?ude ?? (some): Y?ude rén tànxi, y?ude rén liúlèi. (Some people were sighing, while others wept.)
    • shìde ?? (yes, certainly): Shìde, w? jiù qù. (Certainly, I’ll go right away.)
    • shìde ?? (like, as): Xiàng hóuzi shìde, tiàolái tiàoqù. (Jumping around, just like a monkey.)

    But ? isn’t Mandarin’s only common de. Let’s not forget de (?, the 20th most commonly used Hanzi) and de (?, 35th).

    These three homophonous particles are represented by three different characters in writing; would it perhaps be useful to create three different Hanyu Pinyin forms to differentiate them in Hanyu Pinyin writing? The basic principle of Hanyu Pinyin orthography is to take the language’s sound system as the basis for spelling, and, by this standard the three particles ?, ?, and ? should all be written identically as “de.” But it may be desirable in certain situations (such as Chinese-language word processing and other computer applications, and in machine translation) to differentiate the three. In this case, they may be assigned different written forms: ?, the most commonly used, as “d”; ? as “di” (an alternate pronunciation of this character); and the third, ?, as “de.”


    • ? = d (pronounced de)
    • ? = di (pronounced de)
    • ? = de (pronounced de)*

    (* Yes, I know those all have other readings. But we’re not talking here about Chinese characters with multiple pronunciations.)

    But you don’t have to use those orthographic variants if you don’t want to. For an example of a text that does use d and de, see this lovely story: Dàshu? Guòhòu (After the Flood).

    OK, let’s get back to those other de‘s.

    de ?

    The principal function of this particle is to link an adverbial modifier to “the verb or adjective it modifies. de ? is always written separately from the elements preceding and following it.


    • suíbiàn de kàn (look over casually)
    • mànmàn de z?u (walk slowly)
    • y? k?u y? k?u de ch? (eat bite by bite)

    de ?

    The principal function of this particle is to link a verb or adjective with its complement. The complement expresses possibility, degree, or result, and may be composed of a single word or a phrase. The verb or adjective preceding de ? may only be a single word, never a phrase. de ? is in principle written separately from the elements preceding and following it. The bù ? that negates a de ? expressing possibility is also written separately from the elements around it.


    • h?o de h?n (very good)
    • du? de du? (much more)
    • l?ng de yàomìng (freezing cold)
    • h?i de kànbujiàn rén (so dark one can’t see the people around one)
    • g?oxìng de j?nj?n wòzhu ta de sh?u shu?: “Xièxie! Xièxie!” (so happy I could only grasp his hand and say, “Thank you! Thank you!)

    There are two main situations in which de ? should be written as one unit with the component that precedes or follows it. Let us take a look at these:
    (1) de ? sometimes joins together with the verb that precedes it to form a single word. Sometimes a bù ? is interposed between the verb and de ? to indicate negation. In either case, all elements are written as one unit.

    • d?ngde (to understand)
    • jìde (to remember)
    • jiànde (to seem)
    • juéde (to feel)
    • láide (to be competent (to do something)
    • láibude (impermissable)
    • li?ode (terrible)
    • li?obude (teriffic)

    (2) In certain trisyllabic verb-complement constructions in which de ? (or the negative marker bù ?) forms the middle syllable, the meaning of the complement has altered and the whole has come to express a single concept. In this case all three syllables should be written as one unit.

    • láidejí (there’s still time; to be in time)
    • láibují (there’s no time; to be too late)
    • ch?dek?i (to be popular)
    • ch?buk?i (be unpopular)
    • duìdeq? (not let somebody down)
    • duìbuq? (let somebody down; also, “excuse me”)
    • ch?dexi?o (be able to bear)
    • ch?buxi?o (be unable to bear)

    How to write adverbs in Hanyu Pinyin

    cover of Chinese Romanization: Pronunciation and OrthographyI thought how to write adverbs in Hanyu Pinyin (1.1 MB PDF) would be the logical follow-up to last week’s posting of the rules for verbs.

    Most of these are pretty straightforward, so I won’t discuss much here.

    One note: Although reduplicated verbs lose the tone on their second syllable, reduplicated adverbs do not:

    • g?ngg?ng ?? (just now)
    • j?nj?n ?? (only; merely)
    • chángcháng ?? (often)
    • sh?osh?o ?? (a bit; slightly)

    Here are some of the adverbs for which examples are given:

    • d?u ? (all)
    • zh? ? (only)
    • zuì ? (most, -est)
    • gèng ? (even more), b?jiào ??/?? (relatively)
    • h?n ? (very), tài ? (extremely; too)
    • g?ng ?/? (just now), y?jing ??/?? (already), céngjing ??/?? (in the past)
    • jiù ? (then), ji?ng ?/? (in the near future)
    • cái ? (finally)
    • hái ?/?
    • yòu ? (again; too)
    • zài ? (again)
    • y? ? (also, too)

    As always, I recommend this to not just those interested in Pinyin orthography but also to those learning Mandarin (esp. those who are at least at the intermediate level).

    How to write verbs in Hanyu Pinyin

    cover of Chinese Romanization: Pronunciation and OrthographyToday’s release from Yin Binyong’s Chinese Romanization: Pronunciation and Orthography is a long, important section that covers verbs in Hanyu Pinyin (2 MB PDF).

    In this post I’ll go over the rules for what to do with Mandarin’s three tense-marking particles — zhe (?/?), guo ( ?/?), and le (?) — since these participles are extremely common and people are often unaware of how they should be written in Pinyin. Fortunately, this is pretty easy: -zhe and -guo are always written solid (with no interposing space or hyphen) with the verb they follow. The case of le is more complicated (but not too much trouble).

    -zhe ?/?

    -zhe is added onto a verb to indicate the ongoing nature of an action or state, whether in the past, present, or future. It thus bears a certain similarity to the English verb suffix -ing. A sentence in which -zhe is used tends to emphasize the description of the action or state indicated by the verb. Since no other sentence component may be interposed between a verb and -zhe, a general rule may be stated: -zhe is always written as one unit with the verb it follows.

    Some examples:

    T? w?ixiàozhe duì w? shu?: “N? lái ba!”
    ???????: “???!”
    (Smiling, she said to me, “Come on!”)

    N? xi?n d?ngzhe, ràng w? jìnqu kànkan.
    (You wait out here while I go in and look.)

    Note that “kànkan” in the sentence above shows something else about verbs in Hanyu Pinyin: the second part of a reduplicated verb is in the neutral tone.

    -guo ?/?

    -guo is added after a verb to indicate that a given person or object has experienced the action expressed by the verb. -guo may only be used in the past tense. Since no other sentence component may be interposed between a verb and -guo, a general rule may be formulated: -guo is always written as one unit with the verb it follows.

    Some examples:

    W? xuéguo li?ng nián Y?ngy?, dànshì méi xuéguo Rìy?.
    (I’ve studied two years of English, but I haven’t studied Japanese.)

    Nà b?n sh? w? kànjianguo, h?oxiàng zài sh?jià shang.
    (I have seen that book somewhere; I think it’s on the bookshelf.)

    le ?

    The tense-marking particle le is added after a verb to emphasize that the action expressed has been completed or that the state indicated has been achieved. -le is ordinarily written as one unit with the verb it follows.

    For example:

    Zuóti?n w?nshang w? kànle y? ch?ng diàny?ng.
    (I saw a movie yesterday evening.)

    But here’s where it starts to get a little more complicated.

    If a verb complement is interposed between the verb and the tense marker -le in a sentence, there are two possible written forms. If the verb and its complement are written as a unit, then –le is written as a unit with them; if they are written separately, then -le too is written separately.

    For example:

    Xi?o Chén q?ngq?ng de gu?nshangle fángmén.
    (Xiao Chen gently closed the house door.)

    But also:

    T? cóng sh?b?o l? ná ch?lai le li?ng b?n liánhuánhuà.
    (He pulled two comic books out of his bookbag.)
    (ná ? — verb; ch?lai ?? — complement)

    I suspect that’s the sort of thing that may well change (for the simpler) once Pinyin makes it out into the world of popular usage as a script in its own right. But for now I’m just givin’ the rules as I find ’em.

    Speaking of which, here’s the final twist on -le.

    Apart from its function as a tense-marking particle, -le can also serve as a mood-marking particle. (The former usage is usually denominated le1 and the latter le2 in grammar texts.) In its latter capacity, le always appears at the end of a sentence or clause, just before a comma, period, or other punctuation mark. The two different le’s, le1 and le2, are sometimes quite difficult to distinguish in practice. With this in mind, and with the aim of simplifying HP orthography, the, following simple rule is set out: any le, whether le1 or le2, appearing at the end of a sentence or clause is to be written by itself.

    Thus, that’s actually a good thing, since it simplified matters. So, for anyone programming a Pinyin converter, put a space before le if it is immediately followed by punctuation.

    Thus, for example:

    W?men túsh?gu?n y?jing m?ile s?nwàn du? b?n sh? le.
    (Our library has already purchased over thirty thousand books.)

    H?o le, h?o le, dàji? d?u bié ch?o le.
    ????, ??????.
    (All right, all right, everybody quiet down.)

    Remember: This post covered only one small aspect of the entire reading. So be sure to download and read the entire PDF, which has many, many more examples.

    It’s also a very useful reading for students of Mandarin.