John DeFrancis video

John DeFrancisTen years ago John DeFrancis was awarded the Chinese Language Teachers Association’s first lifetime achievement award. Since he could not be present at the association’s annual conference to receive the award, he sent a videotape of a 12-minute acceptance speech. The video was recently edited down to 6:27 and uploaded to YouTube: John DeFrancis remarks.

Here’s my summary of the main points:

0:00 — While working on what he intended to be a largely political study of Chinese nationalism, DeFrancis encountered references to people who wanted China to adopt an alphabetic writing system, an idea which he initially dismissed. But discovering Lu Xun’s interest in romanization led him to investigate the matter further. [I'm frustrated by the cut away from this discussion. Perhaps a fuller version of the video will be posted later.]
1:30 — Emphasizes he’s not in favor of completely abandoning Chinese characters. Rather, he favors digraphia.
2:30 — “I’d like to mention three aspects of the Chinese field which have interested me.”

  1. pedagogy (2:50) — lots of advancements
  2. linguistic aspect (3:20) — that’s also progressing well
  3. socio-linguistics (3:52) — the field isn’t doing as well as it should be

5:00 — computers and Chinese characters. DeFrancis tears into the Chinese government for its emphasis on shape-based character-input methods rather than Pinyin.

mother-bleeping X’s

Click to enlarge. Taiwanese movie poster for the Western film 'Severance' (???). It contains the line '????????? ????? Orz'

Language Log has had quite a few posts in recent months on the bleeping out of letters from obscenities. I’d like to add here an example of something bleeped out of a string of Chinese characters.

The other day I noticed an ad on the side of a bus for the forthcoming British slasher film Severance. (I didn’t get a good photo of this ad, so here I’m using an image of the poster for this movie.) In Mandarin this has the rather uninspired title of Duàntóu qì (???: “Severed Head Qi“).

What really caught my eye, however, was the tag line in Chinese characters:

????????? ????? Orz

This is interesting not just for the use of Orz, which is Net slang, but also for the bleeping out of the middle character of the obscenity t?m? de (???, sometimes seen as “tamade“), rendering it ?X?. (Note too that a Roman letter rather than a Chinese character was used for this.)

There’s nothing obscene about the middle character by itself (?). It’s used in writing words related to m? (“mother”). For that matter, there’s nothing in the least impolite about any of the characters by themselves or the individual morphemes they represent. The phrase as a whole literally means simply “his mother’s.” But as a whole the phrase works as something that youngsters would get into trouble for saying around their parents or elders and that would probably not be used on television (not without bleeping the subtitles, at least).

Lu Xun (L? Xùn/??/??) wrote a brief essay about the expression tama de. (For an English translation and notes of Lu Xun’s tama de essay, see Lu Xun on the Chinese “national swear”, an excellent post by Huichieh Loy of From a Singapore Angle.)

Back to the bleeping. As the results of Google searches show, ??? and ?X? are both common, though the original form is much more so.

  total of all domains within .cn domains within .tw domains
?X? 98,100 22,700 6,960
??? 1,910,000 173,000 903,000

Note that .cn (PRC) domains have 23.14% of the total ?X?s but only 9.06% of the total ???s. This difference is probably a result of China’s Net nanny culture. On the other hand, specifically PRC domains still have a lot of ???s. (Or rather ???s, using the so-called simplified form of ?.) Taiwan domains, however, have more than five times as many, which in the spirit of this post I should probably call a fucking lot of ???s.

Out of curiousity I also ran searches for the other letters of the alphabet and found a spike for the ?M?. The letter M serves here as an abbreviation for the ma of tama de. Accordingly, it’s no surprise to see that ?ma? is also found and that both ?M? and ?ma? are relatively rare in .tw domains (since people in Taiwan aren’t taught romanization).

  total of all domains within .cn domains within .tw domains
?M? 21,200 4,220 128
?ma? 12,400 2,620 168

To my surprise, I also came across a lesser spike for the use of the letter Y: ?Y?

  total of all domains within .cn domains within .tw domains
?Y? 8,450 1,520 14

The ?Y?s are mainly referring to a sadistic Flash game Pìpì ch?u t? Y de (????Y?).

But it appears this isn’t really intended to be the letter Y from the Roman alphabet. Instead, Y appears to be used in place of zhuyin fuhao’s similar-looking ?, which represents the sound that Hanyu Pinyin assigns to the Roman letter A. Thus, ?Y? is not read “ta Y de” but more like “taaa de.” (See Some Things Chinese Characters Can’t Do-Be-Do-Be-Do.) Oddly enough, there are thousands of pages with ?Y? (Roman letter Y) but just a handful with ??? (bopo mofo ?). This may be from the relative ease of typing the letter Y instead of zhuyin’s ?. Another odd result is that many of the ???s are within .cn domains but in traditional Chinese characters. [Later addition: See the comments for clarification on this.]

Since the subject of zhuyin fuhao came up, I made some additional searches:

  total of all domains within .cn domains within .tw domains
?????? 0 0 0
???? 142 0 55
??? 3,820 16 1,410
??? 408 0 2

“TMD” is another extremely common way to indicate tama de. But too many unrelated results turn up in searches for me to give useful numbers for this.

OK, I’m finally finished with this tama de post.