Most of these are pretty straightforward, so I won’t discuss much here.
One note: Although reduplicated verbs lose the tone on their second syllable, reduplicated adverbs do not:
- g?ngg?ng ?? (just now)
- j?nj?n ?? (only; merely)
- chángcháng ?? (often)
- sh?osh?o ?? (a bit; slightly)
Here are some of the adverbs for which examples are given:
- d?u ? (all)
- zh? ? (only)
- zuì ? (most, -est)
- gèng ? (even more), b?jiào ??/?? (relatively)
- h?n ? (very), tài ? (extremely; too)
- g?ng ?/? (just now), y?jing ??/?? (already), céngjing ??/?? (in the past)
- jiù ? (then), ji?ng ?/? (in the near future)
- cái ? (finally)
- hái ?/?
- yòu ? (again; too)
- zài ? (again)
- y? ? (also, too)
As always, I recommend this to not just those interested in Pinyin orthography but also to those learning Mandarin (esp. those who are at least at the intermediate level).